The second European Joint Action on Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infections (EU-JAMRAI2) stands for the appropriate use of antimicrobials in human and animals, as well as the impact of their use on environmental contamination. EU-JAMRAI2 contributes to the wider uptake of state-of-the-art Infection and Prevention Control (IPC) for both community-acquired and healthcare-associated infections, and Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) strategies in various settings.

The Joint Action helps Member States and Associated Countries in the update of their National Action Plans (NAP) and supports the implementation of core elements and core competencies for AMS and IPC.

Stewardship in human health

EU framework

EU-JAMRAI2 works on an EU framework for AMS programs in hospitals, primary care, and Long-term Care Facility (LTCF) and the creation of a self-assessment system for AMS programs in human health.

P2P programs

The Joint Action also promotes professional empowerment, team building, networking, and implementation of AMS best practices according to the professionals and local needs through P2P programs and real-experience webinars for healthcare specialists and stakeholders.

Expert network

An EU-JAMRAI2 expert network on AMS is being established to reinforce the cooperation between countries, favour the operability, sustainability, and follow-up of the activities, and make the EU a best-practice region on AMS.

Stewardship in animal health


EU-JAMRAI2 is defining core elements for AMS programs in animal health through a comprehensive review and the organization of workshops and meetings to enable the exchange of experiences, models and synergies between the human and the animal sector.


The core competencies for AMS in animal health are being identified and gathered on guidelines to support the implementation of stewardship programs.

Expert network

All this work will be upheld by an EU-JAMRAI2 expert network on animal health, created to foster interactions and exchange of knowledge between the existing professional networks and public bodies.

Communication and training

Communication and training strategies disseminates the findings and facilitate the exchange of information between the users and other stakeholders.

Stewardship in the environment

EU-JAMRAI2 provides training and mentorship to key professionals on the impact of prescriptions and AMS on environmental contamination.

Target groups

Farmers, wastewater managers, and slaughterhouse workers are some of the relevant target groups defined and addressed by the AMS environmental actions. The Joint Action is performing a gap analysis to identify needs regarding the reduction of emission/diffusion of AMR in the environment.


EU-JAMRAI2 is designing a toolkit aimed at the different target groups based on innovative adult learning methods. The materials are being tested, assessed, and translated into different European languages.